Among the estimated 230,000 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the US each year there has been a rise in the number of radical prostatectomies (RP). There is some debate over the value of immediate adjuvant therapy following RP in men with high-risk pathological features versus delayed salvage radiation therapy when signs of disease progression are observed. Thus, it would be potentially useful to inform post-RP management strategies by more clearly identifying those patients at higher risk of progression and death from prostate cancer. A 22 gene-expression assay, Decipher® (GenomeDx Biosciences), has been developed in men treated with radical prostatectomy to predict the five-year risk of metastatic prostate cancer. Published and unpublished literature was evaluated to determine the analytic validity, clinical validity and clinical utility of Decipher. Limited information is available on the analytic validity of Decipher. In both discovery and validation studies, Decipher was shown to have good performance in discriminating men with metastasis from men without metastasis five years after surgery (AUC 0.75 to 0.90). In terms of clinical utility, no evidence was found reporting improved outcomes (lower prostate cancer specific mortality and treatment related adverse effects) from using this test to guide post-operative treatment. Four studies provided weak indirect evidence of clinical utility in which 31% to 43% of post-operative treatment recommendations were changed in men with high-risk prostate cancer based on test results, with 27% to 52% of treatment recommendations changing from any treatment to no treatment.
Use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains a complex decision in the treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with risk of recurrence being the primary indicator (i.e. adjuvant chemotherapy is considered for patients at high risk of recurrence but may not be beneficial for patients at low risk). However, although several clinical and pathological factors are typically considered when assessing the risk of recurrence, none are significantly associated with clinical outcome with the exception of tumor size. GeneFx® Lung (Helomics™ Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA) is a multi-gene RNA expression signature that classifies early stage NSCLC patients as high-risk or low-risk for disease recurrence. GeneFx Lung risk category has been shown to be significantly associated with overall survival in several independent clinical studies. The published literature regarding the analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility of GeneFx Lung is summarized herein.
Selection of appropriate chemotherapy, including identification of platinum resistance, is critical to effective management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). ChemoFx®, a multiple treatment marker (chemoresponse assay), has been developed to address this challenge and to improve outcomes in patients with advanced EOC. While much work has been done that has demonstrated the analytical validity of this assay, more recent studies have highlighted the unique clinical benefits offered by the assay. A prospective, multicenter trial has shown an increase in overall survival (OS) of 14 months and an increase in progression-free survival (PFS) by 3 months in patients with recurrent EOS treated by a “sensitive” therapy based on ChemoFx results. Along with other studies showing similar gains in OS and PFS, ChemoFx has been shown to be both a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with recurrent EOC where current treatment options are sorely lacking. In addition to these clinical benefits, economic analyses have shown that ChemoFx is a cost-effective intervention. Current guidelines and technology assessments relating to ChemoFx are largely outdated and refer primarily to metrics of analytical validity. Thus, in addition to analytical validity, the clinical validity, clinical utility and economic impact of ChemoFx are reviewed herein, including published literature, technology assessments by independent parties, and regulatory approvals of this marker.
The clinical presentation of multiple, rare, skin appendage tumours called cylindromas has been attributed to germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CYLD (OMIM 605018). Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome (BSS), familial cylindromatosis (FC) and multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT) (OMIM #605041, #132700, #601606 respectively) differ due to the types of other skin appendage tumour seen together with cylindroma, such as spiradenoma and trichoepithelioma. Previously thought to be separate entities, they are now viewed as allelic variants with overlapping phenotypes, supported by mutation analysis of CYLD . The conditions display autosomal dominant inheritance and affected individuals develop multiple benign skin tumours most commonly on the head and neck.
CYLD testing can be performed using PCR and Sanger sequencing for patients with:
1. Multiple cylindromas, spiradenomas or trichoepitheliomas.
2. A single cylindroma, spiradenoma or trichoepithelioma and an affected first-degree relative with any of these tumours.
3. An asymptomatic family member at 50% risk with a known mutation in the family.
In contemporary oncology practices there is an increasing emphasis on concurrent evaluation of multiple genomic alterations within the biological pathways driving tumorigenesis. At the foundation of this paradigm shift are several commercially available tumor panels using next-generation sequencing to develop a more complete molecular blueprint of the tumor. Ideally, these would be used to identify clinically actionable variants that can be matched with available molecularly targeted therapy, regardless of the tumor site or histology. Currently, there is little information available on the post-analytic processes unique to next-generation sequencing platforms used by the companies offering these tests. Additionally, evidence of clinical validity showing an association between the genetic markers curated in these tests with treatment response to approved molecularly targeted therapies is lacking across all solid-tumor types. To date, there is no published data of improved outcomes when using the commercially available tests to guide treatment decisions. The uniqueness of these tests from other genomic applications used to guide clinical treatment decisions lie in the sequencing platforms used to generate large amounts of genomic data, which have their own related issues regarding analytic and clinical validity, necessary precursors to the evaluation of clinical utility. The generation and interpretation of these data will require new evidentiary standards for establishing not only clinical utility, but also analytical and clinical validity for this emerging paradigm in oncology practice.
Statin drugs are highly effective in lowering blood concentrations of LDL-cholesterol, with concomitant reduction in risk of major cardiovascular events. Although statins are generally regarded as safe and well-tolerated, some users develop muscle symptoms that are mostly mild but in rare cases can lead to life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. The SEARCH genome-wide association study, which has been independently replicated, found a significant association between the rs4149056 (c.521T>C) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the SLCO1B1 gene, and myopathy in individuals taking 80 mg simvastatin per day, with an odds ratio of 4.5 per rs4149056 C allele. The purpose of this paper is to assemble evidence relating to the analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility of using SLCO1B1 rs4149056 genotyping to inform choice and dose of statin treatment, with the aim of minimising statin-induced myopathy and increasing adherence to therapy. Genotyping assays for the rs4149056 SNP appear to be robust and accurate, though direct evidence for the performance of array-based platforms in genotyping individual SNPs was not found. Using data from the SEARCH study, calculated values for the clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values of a test for the C allele to predict definite or incipient myopathy during 5 years of 80 mg/day simvastatin use were 70.4%, 73.7%, 4.1% and 99.4% respectively. There is a need for studies comparing the clinical validity of SLCO1B1 rs4149056 genotyping with risk scores for myopathy based on other factors such as racial background, statin type and dose, gender, body mass index, co-medications and co-morbidities. No direct evidence was found for clinical utility of statin prescription guided by SLCO1B1 genotype.
Endometrial cancer is the first malignancy in 50% of women with Lynch syndrome, an autosomal dominant cancer-prone syndrome caused by germline mutations in genes encoding components of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. These women (2-4% of all those with endometrial cancer) are at risk of metachronous colorectal cancer and other Lynch syndrome-associated cancers, and their first-degree relatives are at 50% risk of Lynch syndrome. Testing all women newly diagnosed with endometrial cancer for Lynch syndrome may have clinical utility for the index case and her relatives by alerting them to the benefits of surveillance and preventive options, primarily for colorectal cancer. The strategy involves offering germline DNA mutation testing to those whose tumour shows loss-of-function of MMR protein(s) when analysed for microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or by immunohistochemisty (IHC). In endometrial tumours from unselected patients, MSI and IHC have a sensitivity of 80-100% and specificity of 60-80% for detecting a mutation in an MMR gene, though the number of suitable studies for determining clinical validity is small. The clinical validity of strategies to exclude those with false-positive tumour test results due to somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter has not been determined. Options include direct methylation testing, and excluding those over the age of 60 who have no concerning family history or clinical features. The clinical utility of Lynch syndrome testing for the index case depends on her age and the MMR gene mutated: the net benefit is lower for those diagnosed at older ages and with less-penetrant MSH6 mutations. To date, women with these features are the majority of those diagnosed through screening unselected endometrial cancer patients but the number of studies is small. Similarly, clinical utility to relatives of the index case is higher if the family’s mutation is in MLH1 or MSH2 than for MSH6 or PMS2. Gaps in current evidence include a need for large, prospective studies on unselected endometrial cancer patients, and for health-economic analysis based on appropriate assumptions.
The determination of the underlying etiology of symptoms suggestive of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD, ≥50% stenosis in a major coronary artery) is a common clinical challenge in both primary care and cardiology clinics. Usual care in low to medium risk patients often involves a family history, risk factor assessment, and then stress testing with or without non-invasive imaging. If positive, this is often followed by invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Despite extensive adoption of this usual care paradigm, more than 60% of patients referred for angiography do not have obstructive CAD. In order to robustly identify those symptomatic patients without obstructive CAD, who can avoid subsequent cardiac testing and look elsewhere for the cause of their symptoms, a recently described whole blood gene expression score (GES: Corus® CAD, CardioDx, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) has been developed and validated in two multi-center trials. This paper reviews the published literature and assessments by independent parties regarding the analytical and clinical validity as well as the clinical utility of the Corus® CAD test.
Classic Dravet syndrome is also termed severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI). There are subtle phenotypic variants of Dravet which may have all the features of the syndrome except one, such as without myoclonic seizures, onset in the second year or without generalized spike and wave on EEG. These have been termed borderline variants of SMEI. Rather than ascribing multiple different names to marginally different phenotypes, the term Dravet syndrome is now preferred to describe the group of severe infantile onset epilepsies (OMIM #607208, #182389, #604403) associated with mutations in SCN1A (OMIM *182389).
SCN1A-related seizure disorders can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner but most are due to de novo mutations. SCN1A testing can be done through bi-directional DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for:
1) individuals with electroclinical phenotype of Dravet Syndrome or clinical sub-types – several seizure types in one individual with onset in infancy, refractory to medication and with generalised spike and wave on EEG, or
2) infants less than 1 year old with 2 or more prolonged hemiclonic febrile seizures in early infancy.
Disclaimer: This summary is based on a UK Genetic Testing Network (UKGTN) approved Gene Dossier application.
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary cancer of the eye and has a strong propensity for metastasis. Although there have been many recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of UM, and only 2-4% of patients present with detectable metastasis, up to half of patients are at risk for dying of metastatic disease. Clinicopathologic factors are not accurate enough for individualized patient care. Chromosomal alterations have been used for prognostic purposes, but the routine clinical use of these methods is limited by their susceptibility to sampling error resulting from tumor heterogeneity, limited clinical validation, lack of standardized testing platforms, and high technical failure rates. In contrast, the DecisionDx-UM gene expression profile test is a stand-alone platform which requires no other information for maximal prognostic accuracy and which circumvents many of the drawbacks of chromosomal methods through the use of a highly sensitive microfluidics, PCR-based platform that simultaneously measures the expression of 15 carefully selected genes from primary uveal melanoma samples obtained by fine needle biopsy. Low metastatic risk is reported as Class 1, and high metastatic risk as Class 2. The test allows patients to be stratified into risk categories such that high-risk patients can be offered intensive metastatic surveillance and adjuvant therapy while low-risk patients can be spared these interventions. This test is now used as part of the standard of care in many ocular oncology centers.