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Stephanie Melillo

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Genetic Testing for Lynch Syndrome in Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality from Colorectal Cancer in Their Relatives

Individuals with Lynch syndrome, sometimes referred to as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as other cancers. The increased risk is due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, which reduce the ability of cells to repair DNA damage. Screening for Lynch syndrome in individuals newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer has been proposed as part of a strategy that combines tests and interventions to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in the relatives of the colorectal cancer patients with Lynch Syndrome.

Fecal DNA testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening: the ColoSure™ test

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Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Screening has been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood tests are all recommended screening tests that have widespread availability. Nevertheless, many people do not receive the evidence-based recommended screening for colorectal cancer. Additional stool-based methods have been developed that offer more options for colorectal cancer screening, including a variety of fecal DNA tests. The only fecal DNA test that is currently available commercially in the United States is ColoSure(TM), which is marketed as a non-invasive test that detects an epigenetic marker (methylated vimentin) associated with colorectal cancer and pre-cancerous adenomas. We examined the published literature on the analytic validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of ColoSure and we briefly summarized the current colorectal cancer screening guidelines regarding fecal DNA testing. We also addressed the public health implications of the test and contextual issues surrounding the integration of fecal DNA testing into current colorectal cancer screening strategies. The primary goal was to provide a basic overview of ColoSure and identify gaps in knowledge and evidence that affect the recommendation and adoption of the test in colorectal cancer screening strategies.