Between July 2014 and September 2015, a neonatal care unit (NCU) in Port Au Prince, Haiti, experienced an outbreak of sepsis, most probably due to nosocomial transmission of Extended Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing gram negative bacteria, included Klebsiella pneumoniae.
We describe the epidemiological and microbiological activities performed as part of the outbreak investigation and the control measures implemented throughout this period.
During the study period 257 cases of sepsis were reported, of which 191 died. The case fatality decreased from 100% in July 2014 to 24% in September 2015 and could be attributed to an improvement in clinical management and strengthened infection prevention and control measures. Risk factors identified to be associated with having late onset sepsis (sepsis onset >48 hours after birth)(n=205/257, 79. included: all categories of birthweight lower than <2500g (p=<0.0001) and all categories of gestational age younger than 36 weeks (p=0.0002). Microbiological investigations confirmed that out of 32 isolates (N=55; 58%) that were positive for gram negative bacteria, 27 (89%) were due to K. pneumoniae and most of these were from single MLST type (ST37).
This outbreak highlighted the importance of epidemiological and microbiological surveillance during an outbreak of sepsis in a NCU in a low resource setting, including regular point prevalence surveys.