Ebola and Indirect Effects on Health Service Function in Sierra Leone

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Background: The indirect effects of the Ebola epidemic on health service function may be significant but is not known. The aim of this study was to quantify to what extent admission rates and surgery has changed at health facilities providing such care in Sierra Leone during the time of the Ebola epidemic.

Methods: Weekly data on facility inpatient admissions and surgery from admission and surgical theatre register books were retrospectively retrieved during September and October. 21 Community Health Officers enrolled in a surgical task-shifting program personally visited the facilities. The study period was January 6 (week 2) to October 12, (week 41) 2014.

Results: Data was retrieved from 40 out of 55 facilities. A total of 62,257 admissions and 12,124 major surgeries were registered for the study period.
Total admissions in the week of the first Ebola case were 2,006, median 40 (IQR 20-76) compared to 883, median 12 (IQR 4-30) on the last week of the study. This equals a 70% drop in median number of admissions (p=0.005) between May and October. Total number of major surgeries fell from 342, median 6 (IQR 2-14) to 231, median 3 (IQR 0-6) in the same period, equal 50% reduction in median number of major surgeries (p=0.014).

Conclusions: Inpatient health services have been severely affected by the Ebola outbreak. The dramatic documented decline in facility inpatient admissions and major surgery is likely to be an underestimation. Reestablishing such care is urgent and must be a priority.

Estimation of MERS-Coronavirus Reproductive Number and Case Fatality Rate for the Spring 2014 Saudi Arabia Outbreak: Insights from Publicly Available Data

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Background: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was initially recognized as a source of severe respiratory illness and renal failure in 2012. Prior to 2014, MERS-CoV was mostly associated with sporadic cases of human illness, of presumed zoonotic origin, though chains of person-to-person transmission in the healthcare setting were reported. In spring 2014, large healthcare-associated outbreaks of MERS-CoV infection occurred in Jeddah and Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To date the epidemiological information published by public health investigators in affected jurisdictions has been relatively limited. However, it is important that the global public health community have access to information on the basic epidemiological features of the outbreak to date, including the basic reproduction number (R0) and best estimates of case-fatality rates (CFR). We sought to address these gaps using a publicly available line listing of MERS-CoV cases.

Methods: R0 was estimated using the incidence decay with exponential adjustment (“IDEA”) method, while period-specific case fatality rates that incorporated non-attributed death data were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation.

Results: 707 cases were available for evaluation. 52% of cases were identified as primary, with the rest being secondary. IDEA model fits suggested a higher R0 in Jeddah (3.5-6.7) than in Riyadh (2.0-2.8); control parameters suggested more rapid reduction in transmission in the former city than the latter. The model accurately projected final size and end date of the Riyadh outbreak based on information available prior to the outbreak peak; for Jeddah, these projections were possible once the outbreak peaked. Overall case-fatality was 40%; depending on the timing of 171 deaths unlinked to case data, outbreak CFR could be higher, lower, or equivalent to pre-outbreak CFR.

Conclusions: Notwithstanding imperfect data, inferences about MERS-CoV epidemiology important for public health preparedness are possible using publicly available data sources. The R0 estimated in Riyadh appears similar to that seen for SARS-CoV, but CFR appears higher, and indirect evidence suggests control activities ended these outbreaks. These data suggest this disease should be regarded with equal or greater concern than the related SARS-CoV.

Assessment of the Risk of Ebola Importation to Australia

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Objectives: To assess the risk of Ebola importation to Australia during the first six months of 2015, based upon the current outbreak in West Africa.

Methodology: We assessed the risk under two distinct scenarios: (i) assuming that significant numbers of cases of Ebola remain confined to Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and using historic passenger arrival data into Australia; and, (ii) assuming potential secondary spread based upon international flight data. A model appropriate to each scenario is developed, and parameterised using passenger arrival card or international flight data, and World Health Organisation case data from West Africa. These models were constructed based on WHO Ebola outbreak data as at 17 October 2014 and 3 December 2014. An assessment of the risk under each scenario is reported. On 27 October 2014 the Australian Government announced a policy change, that visas from affected countries would be refused/cancelled, and the predicted effect of this policy change is reported.

Results: The current probability of at least one case entering Australia by 1 July 2015, having travelled directly from West Africa with historic passenger arrival rates into Australia, is 0.34. Under the new Australian Government policy of restricting visas from affected countries (as of 27 October 2014), the probability of at least one case entering Australia by 1 July 2015 is reduced to 0.16. The probability of at least one case entering Australia by 1 July 2015 via an outbreak from a secondary source country is approximately 0.12.

Conclusions: Our models suggest that if the transmission of Ebola remains unchanged, it is possible that a case will enter Australia within the first six months of 2015, either directly from West Africa (even when current visa restrictions are considered), or via secondary outbreaks elsewhere. Government and medical authorities should be prepared to respond to this eventuality. Control measures within West Africa over recent months have contributed to a reduction in projected risk of a case entering Australia. A significant further reduction of the rate at which Ebola is proliferating in West Africa, and control of the disease if and when it proliferates elsewhere, will continue to result in substantially lower risk of the disease entering Australia.

Estimating Potential Incidence of MERS-CoV Associated with Hajj Pilgrims to Saudi Arabia, 2014

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Between March and June 2014 the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) had a large outbreak of MERS-CoV, renewing fears of a major outbreak during the Hajj this October. Using KSA Ministry of Health data, the MERS-CoV Scenario and Modeling Working Group forecast incidence under three scenarios. In the expected incidence scenario, we estimate 6.2 (95% Prediction Interval [PI]: 1–17) pilgrims will develop MERS-CoV symptoms during the Hajj, and 4.0 (95% PI: 0–12) foreign pilgrims will be infected but return home before developing symptoms. In the most pessimistic scenario, 47.6 (95% PI: 32–66) cases will develop symptoms during the Hajj, and 29.0 (95% PI: 17–43) will be infected but return home asymptomatic. Large numbers of MERS-CoV cases are unlikely to occur during the 2014 Hajj even under pessimistic assumptions, but careful monitoring is still needed to detect possible mass infection events and minimize introductions into other countries.  

Projected Impact of Vaccination Timing and Dose Availability on the Course of the 2014 West African Ebola Epidemic

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Background: The 2014 West African Ebola outbreak has evolved into an epidemic of historical proportions and catastrophic scope. Prior outbreaks have been contained through the use of personal protective equipment, but such an approach has not been rapidly effective in the current epidemic. Several candidate vaccines have been developed against the Ebola virus, and are undergoing initial clinical trials.

Methods: As removal of population-level susceptibility through vaccination could be a highly impactful control measure for this epidemic, we sought to estimate the number of vaccine doses and timing of vaccine administration required to reduce the epidemic size. Our base model was fit using the IDEA approach, a single equation model that has been successful to date in describing Ebola growth. We projected the future course of the Ebola epidemic using this model. Vaccination was assumed to reduce the effective reproductive number. We evaluated the potential impact of vaccination on epidemic trajectory under different assumptions around timing of vaccine availability.

Results: Using effective reproductive (Re) number estimates derived from this model, we estimate that 3-4 million doses of vaccine, if available and administered, could reduce Re to 0.9 in the interval from January-March 2015. Later vaccination would be associated with a progressively diminishing impact on final epidemic size; in particular, vaccination to the same Re at or after the epidemic is projected to peak (April-May 2015) would have little impact on final epidemic size, though more intensive campaigns (e.g., Re reduced to 0.5) could still be effective if initiated by summer 2015. In summary, there is a closing window of opportunity for the use of vaccine as a tool for Ebola epidemic control.

Conclusions: Effective vaccination, used before the epidemic peaks, would be projected to prevent tens of thousands of deaths; this does not minimize the ethical challenges that would be associated with wide-scale application of vaccines that have undergone only limited evaluation for safety and efficacy.

Is West Africa Approaching a Catastrophic Phase or is the 2014 Ebola Epidemic Slowing Down? Different Models Yield Different Answers for Liberia

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An unprecedented epidemic of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) has affected West Africa since approximately December 2013, with intense transmission on-going in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia and increasingly important international repercussions. Mathematical models are proving instrumental to forecast the expected number of infections and deaths and quantify the intensity of interventions required to control transmission; however, calibrating mechanistic transmission models to an on-going outbreak is a challenging task owing to limited availability of epidemiological data and rapidly changing interventions. Here we project the trajectory of the EBOV epidemic in Liberia by fitting logistic growth models to the cumulative number of cases. Our model predictions align well with the latest epidemiological reports available as of October 23, and indicates that the exponential growth phase is over in Liberia, with an expected final attack rate of ~0.1-0.12%. Our results indicate that simple phenomenological models can provide complementary insights into the dynamics of an outbreak and capture early signs of changes in population behavior and interventions. In particular, our results underscore the need to treat the effective size of the susceptible population as a dynamic variable rather than a fixed quantity, due to reactive changes in transmission throughout the outbreak. We show that predictions from the logistic model are more variable in the earlier stages of an epidemic (such as the EBOV epidemics in Sierra Leone and Guinea). More research is warranted to compare the performances of mechanistic and phenomenological approaches for disease forecasts, before such predictions can be fully used by public health authorities.

A Three-Scale Network Model for the Early Growth Dynamics of 2014 West Africa Ebola Epidemic

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Background: In mid-October 2014, the number of cases of the West Africa Ebola virus epidemic in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia exceeded 9,000 cases. The early growth dynamics of the epidemic has been qualitatively different for each of the three countries. However, it is important to understand these disparate dynamics as trends of a single epidemic spread over regions with similar geographic and cultural aspects, with likely common parameters for transmission rates and reproduction number R0.

Methods: We combine a discrete, stochastic SEIR model with a three-scale community network model to demonstrate that the different regional trends may be explained by different community mixing rates. Heuristically, the effect of different community mixing rates may be understood as the observation that two individuals infected by the same chain of transmission are more likely to share the same contacts in a less-mixed community. Local saturation effects occur as the contacts of an infected individual are more likely to already be exposed by the same chain of transmission.

Results: The effects of community mixing, together with stochastic effects, can explain the qualitative difference in the growth of Ebola virus cases in each country, and why the probability of large outbreaks may have recently increased. An increase in the rate of Ebola cases in Guinea in late August, and a local fitting of the transient dynamics of the Ebola cases in Liberia, suggests that the epidemic in Liberia has been more severe, and the epidemic in Guinea is worsening, due to discrete seeding events as the epidemic spreads into new communities.

Conclusions: A relatively simple network model provides insight on the role of local effects such as saturation that would be difficult to otherwise quantify. Our results predict that exponential growth of an epidemic is driven by the exposure of new communities, underscoring the importance of limiting this spread.

The UCSC Ebola Genome Portal

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Background:
With the Ebola epidemic raging out of control in West Africa, there has been a flurry of research into the Ebola virus, resulting in the generation of much genomic data.

Methods:
In response to the clear need for tools that integrate multiple strands of research around molecular sequences, we have created the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Ebola Genome Browser, an adaptation of our popular UCSC Genome Browser web tool, which can be used to view the Ebola virus genome sequence from GenBank and nearly 30 annotation tracks generated by mapping external data to the reference sequence. Significant annotations include a multiple alignment comprising 102 Ebola genomes from the current outbreak, 56 from previous outbreaks, and 2 Marburg genomes as an outgroup; a gene track curated by NCBI; protein annotations curated by UniProt and antibody-binding epitopes curated by IEDB. We have extended the Genome Browser’s multiple alignment color-coding scheme to distinguish mutations resulting from non-synonymous coding changes, synonymous changes, or changes in untranslated regions.

Discussion:
Our Ebola Genome portal at http://genome.ucsc.edu/ebolaPortal/ links to the Ebola virus Genome Browser and an aggregate of useful information, including a collection of Ebola antibodies we are curating.

Modeling the Impact of Interventions on an Epidemic of Ebola in Sierra Leone and Liberia

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Background: An Ebola outbreak of unparalleled size is currently affecting several countries in West Africa, and international efforts to control the outbreak are underway. However, the efficacy of these interventions, and their likely impact on an Ebola epidemic of this size, is unknown. Forecasting and simulation of these interventions may inform public health efforts.

Methods: We use existing data from Liberia and Sierra Leone to parameterize a mathematical model of Ebola and use this model to forecast the progression of the epidemic, as well as the efficacy of several interventions, including increased contact tracing, improved infection control practices, the use of a hypothetical pharmaceutical intervention to improve survival in hospitalized patients.

Findings: Model forecasts until Dec. 31, 2014 show an increasingly severe epidemic with no sign of having reached a peak. Modeling results suggest that increased contact tracing, improved infection control, or a combination of the two can have a substantial impact on the number of Ebola cases, but these interventions are not sufficient to halt the progress of the epidemic. The hypothetical pharmaceutical intervention, while impacting mortality, had a smaller effect on the forecasted trajectory of the epidemic.

Interpretation: Near-term, practical interventions to address the ongoing Ebola epidemic may have a beneficial impact on public health, but they will not result in the immediate halting, or even obvious slowing of the epidemic. A long-term commitment of resources and support will be necessary to address the outbreak.

Conservancy of mAb Epitopes in Ebolavirus Glycoproteins of Previous and 2014 Outbreaks

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Background: Several monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are being evaluated as treatment options for the current 2014 Ebola outbreak. But they were derived from and tested for protection against the older 1976 Mayinga or 1995 Kikwit Zaire Ebolaviruses (EBOV). The EBOV sequences reported for the current outbreak contain several mutations whose significance remained to be established.

Methods: We analyzed sequence and structural conservation of the Ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) epitopes for all experimentally identified protective mAbs published to date.

Results: The conservancy analysis of protective mAb epitopes in the Ebolavirus glycoprotein sequences spanning all Ebola virus lineages since 1976 showed that conservancy within the Zaire EBOV lineage was high, with only one immunodominant epitope of mAb 13F6-1-2 acquiring two novel mutations in the 2014 outbreak that might potentially change the antibody specificity and neutralization activity. However, the conservation to other Ebola viruses was unexpectedly low.

Conclusion: Low conservancy of Zaire EBOV mAb epitopes to other EBOV lineages suggests that these epitopes are not indispensable for viral fitness, and that alternative mAbs could be developed to broadly target all EBOV. However, average percent sequence identity of the epitopes for mAbs used in current cocktails to the Zaire EBOV is high with only one epitope differing in the 2014 outbreak. These data bode well for general usefulness of these antibodies in the context of the current outbreak.